Male gender is an obvious risk factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality rate is higher in men than women. Undoubtedly, gender-related behavioral factors, such as higher amounts of smoking, alcohol consumption, and biological differences in immune systems could make males more vulnerable. The role of androgen-responsive elements (AREs) of transmembrane serine proteases type II (TMPRSS2) gene as one of the major players of male dominancy in severe COVID-19 infection has been under appreciated and needs to be clarified.
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
Renal disturbances by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), consisted of acute kidney injury, due to acute tubular necrosis induced by sepsis, hydration, cytokine storm syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and hypoxia. As the direct cytopathic effect of virus on various renal cells has been detected in previous studies, direct virus invasion to the renal tubular cells and interstitium or glomeruli is possible. Previous studies showed that coronavirus enters into the cells by angiotensin-converting enzyme II receptors that are extensively presented in the renal cells. Further, acute kidney injury in COVID-19 is strongly associated with higher mortality and morbidity and is an indicator for survival with Coronavirus infection. In the overall approach to patients with COVID-19 infection, special attention should be paid to control of classical risk factors of kidney injury.
Please cite this paper as: Valizadeh R, Baradaran A, Mirzazadeh A, Bhaskar LVKS. Coronavirus-nephropathy; renal involvement in COVID-19. J Renal Inj Prev. 2020; 9(2): e18. doi: 10.34172/jrip.2020.18.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding infection around the world. The world Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 announced the Coronavirus pandemic. This infection causes many deaths on daily basis. Therapeutic options are currently limited. It is revealed that COVID-19 binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter the host cells. One of the activities of ACE2 is hydrolyzing the active bradykinin metabolite [des-Arg973] BK (DABK). A decreased activity or reducing expression of ACE2 by the virus impairs the inactivation of DABK. This enhances its signaling through the bradykinin B1 receptor (BKB1R) and could lead to fluid extravasation and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Targeting the bradykinin system by either blocking the bradykinin production or blocking bradykinin receptors may open a new potential therapeutic window for the treatment of COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) particularly before patients enter the irreversible stages.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV, Bradykinin, Lung injury, ACE2, Coronavirus, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Angiotensin converting enzyme2
Keikhaei B, Bahadoram M , Rajaei E, Alikhani K, Helalinasab A. Possible ameliorative effect of colchicine on the prevention of cytokine storm and its associated hyper-inflammation in patients with COVID-19. J Prev Epidemiol. 2020;5(1):e02.